Wednesday, 30 May 2012

Kontrol Mute Volume Sentuh

Rangkaian kontrol mute volume ini sangat sederhana dengan hanya mengandalkan satu buah ic pintar NE555. Rangakain ini bisa digunakan untuk rangkaian Audio Amplifier anda atau rangkaian saklar lainnya sebagai On-Off suatu rangkaian....
Here is another simple circuit to mute the volume of Audio devices through simple touch. It exploits the action of the flip-flops in the timer IC 555 to reduce the volume of the Audio amplifier. IC NE555 is designed in the toggle mode. Its lower and upper comparator inputs are connected to the touch plates which can be membrane switches or two pieces of conducting plates. The inputs of comparators are stabilized through R1 and R2 to avoid floating.

Touch controlled Mute switch circuit
Circuit Project: Touch controlled Mute Switch
When the touch plate connected to pin 2 is touched momentarily, output of IC1 goes high and T1 conducts. The centre tap of the volume control is connected to the collector of T1. So when T1 conducts current going to the amplifier drains through T1. This reduces the volume.IC1 remains latched in this position with LED on. When the touch plate connected to pin 6 is touched momentarily, output of IC1 goes low and T1 turns off. This restores the volume.

Source:  www.extremecircuits.net

Monday, 28 May 2012

Rangkaian Lampu LED Sepeda Motor 2x20

Rangkaian Lampu LED Sepeda Motor ini sangat sederhana yang hanya menggunakan beberapa komponen saja tapi hasilnya sangat memuaskan. Konsumsi dayanya sangat kecil cukup 6 Volt saja sangat  cocok untuk sepeda motor anda.
The 555 circuit below is a flashing bicycle light powered with four C,D or AA cells (6 volts). Two sets of 20 LEDs will alternately flash at approximately 4.7 cycles per second using RC values shown (4.7K for R1, 150K for R2 and a 1uF capacitor). Time intervals for the two lamps are about 107 milliseconds (T1, upper LEDs) and 104 milliseconds (T2 lower LEDs). Two transistors are used to provide additional current beyond the 200 mA limit of the 555 timer. A single LED is placed in series with the base of the PNP transistor so that the lower 20 LEDs turn off when the 555 output goes high during the T1 time interval. The high output level of the 555 timer is 1.7 volts less than the supply voltage.

Circuit  Project: 40 LED Bicycle Light

Adding the LED increases the forward voltage required for the PNP transistor to about 2.7 volts so that the 1.7 volt difference from supply to the output is insufficient to turn on the transistor. Each LED is supplied with about 20mA of current for a total of 220mA. The circuit should work with additional LEDs up to about 40 for each group, or 81 total. The circuit will also work with fewer LEDs so it could be assembled and tested with just 5 LEDs (two groups of two plus one) before adding the others.

Source: http://www.diyelectronicsprojects.com/

LED Effects Schematic Diagrams

Rangkaian LED Berjalan 24 kanal. It is 24 channel light illumination. The schematic is very simple – 24 LED’s, 1 MCU and some additional components. The main principle is dynamic indication, which is usually implemented for control of 7-segment digital indicators. Here is the same, as for indicators are used traditional 5-mm LED’s.
For control unit is implemented not expensive MCU ATTYNI2313 (Atmel), which can drive direct LED (up to 20 mA on each pin). As you can see on the schematic, 24 LED’s are grouped in 4 groups, each one consist 6 LED’s. LED’s in group 1 indicate the content of register r0 of MCU, LED’s in group 2 – r1, LED’s in group 3 – r3 and LED’s in group 4 indicate the content of register r3. Dynamic indication do this, as in each moment of time indicates content of one register and scans them consecutive. For instance, when the content of r1 is loaded in output port (PORTB), the transistor Q2 is switched "ON", and the LED of group 2 indicate the bits in r1.
There are 3 buttons – "F", "+" and "-". The button F is for change of effect, and buttons "+" and "–" are for increasing or decreasing the speed of effect. For example, each time when you press button "-" changing of lights go more slowly. For fast changing of speed you can press and hold the appropriate button.
The speed of effects is independent of speed of dynamic indication, which is constant.
The schematic can be powered by any DC adapter for 8 to 15 V / 100mA. I use 12V adapter and for the stabilizer 7805 there is no need of heat sink for them – this is one of advantages of implementation of dynamic indication. Others advantages are simple schematic and PCB, lower pin count of MCU etc.
Software is written in assembler of IDE AVRStudio 4. The program code is below. There are a lot of comments for explanation how the program works. With simple changes in code everyone can make different effects and/or add them. Each effect can be up to 24 stages.
If the LED pins are made longer with additional wires, LED effects can be used for Christmas tree or for advertising text on shop window (for instance). If there is need, LED number can be easy increased up to 32 LED’s and stages. Enjoy!
Schematic




source: http://www.electronics-lab.com

Wednesday, 23 May 2012

Rangkaian Alarm Sepeda Motor Sederhana

Alarm Motor Sederhana- Setelah saya amati keinginan para pembaca saya mencoba menyimpulkan bahwa kebanyakan pembaca mayoritas menyukai rangkaian yang sederhana semisal Alarm sepeda motor ini yang saya kutip dari dytoshareforum.forumotion.net. Rangkaian Alarm ini sangat sederhana sekali, siapapun pasti bisa memasangnya. Silahkan disimak....
       Alarm berguna untuk menghindari terjadinya pencurian sepeda motor. Berikut ini akan saya tuliskan bagaimana membuat alarm sendiri. Sirine dari alarm keamanan adalah menggunakan klakson yang sudah ada pada motor anda.
Cara kerja dari alarm yang saya buat ini adalah mematikan arus CDI sehingga mesin tidak dapat dihidupkan. Apabila kunci kontak dipaksa berada pada posisi ‘ON’ maka klakson akan berbunyi secara terus menerus walaupun kunci kontak dikembalikan pada posisi ‘OFF’ klakson akan tetap berbunyi. Hal ini pasti akan membuat sang pencuri menjadi panik dan memilih untuk kabur, hahaha...

Alat yang perlu disiapkan:
1. Solder dan timah
2. Gunting
3. Isolasi kabel

Bahan yang perlu disiapkan:
1. Saklar (switch) 3 kaki..........Rp 2.500
2. Relay 4 kaki......................Rp 15.000
3. Soket relay.......................Rp 5.000
4. Kabel 3 meter....................Rp 4.500

Diagram kelistrikan alarm:


Memasang saklar alarm:
Saklar alarm diletakkan pada daerah yang sulit dijangkau yaitu dibawah jok, seperti pada gambar dibawah. Potong kabel negatif CDI yang berwarna hitam bergaris putih, lalu sambungkan ke saklar alarm yang berkaki 3. Perhatikan posisinya!! Kabel dari cdi menuju ke saklar dipasang pada kaki nomer 1 (pinggir) sedangkan kabel dari potongan cdi menuju bodi itu dipasang pada kaki nomer 2 (tengah). Kemudian siapkan kabel panjang pada kaki nomer 3 (pinggir) menuju klakson, biarkan dahulu kita lanjut langkah memasang relay dulu yee..


Memasang relay:
Pasang relay pada soketnya, satukan kaki nomer 86 dengan kabel panjang dari saklar alarm yg tadi telah disiapkan, kemudian sambung ke negatif klakson (kabel klakson berwarna hijau). Sambung kaki nomer 30 dan 85 menjadi satu, lalu disambung ke positif klakson (kabel klakson berwarna oranye). Kaki nomer 87 dipasang ke aki, yaitu kabel merah pada soket berwarna hijau.


Pengetesan:
Selesai merakit rangkaian diatas, ada baiknya kita melakukan pengetesan sistem alarm yang kita buat itu.

Pertama, posisikan saklar alarm berada pada posisi OFF, kemudian nyalakan kunci kontak pada posisi ON (seharusnya tidak terjadi apa2). Kemudian hidupkan mesin (seharusnya mesin dapat hidup dengan sempurna), lakukan pengetesan pada klakson, teeet teeet teeet (seharusnya klakson dapat berfungsi normal). Jika semua terasa baik kemudian matikan kunci kontak pada posisi OFF.

Kedua, posisikan saklar alarm berada pada posisi ON, kemudian nyalakan kunci kontak pada posisi ON (seharusnya klakson akan berbunyi). Kemudian coba hidupkan mesin (seharusnya mesin tidak dapat dihidupkan). Langkah terakhir adalah mematikan kunci kontak ke posisi OFF (seharusnya klakson akan tetap berbunyi, berbunyi, dan teruuus berbunyi...)

Langkah terakhir adalah mematikan bunyi klakson alarm yang sanggup membuat telinga bergetar, bergetar dan bergetar... Cabut kunci kontak, buka jok, kemudian matikan alarm dengan memindahkan saklar alarm ke posisi OFF.

Demikian ulasan tentang uraian singkat sistem alarm pada sepeda motor. Semoga bermanfaat gan, Thanks...

http://dytoshareforum.forumotion.net

Saturday, 19 May 2012

Line Follower ROBOT Controlled by 2051

Kuskel Robot- This Robot use two motors control  rear wheels and the single front wheel is free. It has 4-infrared sensors on the bottom for detect black tracking tape, when the sensors detected black color, output of  comparator, LM324 is low logic and the other the output is high.
Microcontrollor AT89C2051 and H-Bridge driver L293D were used  to control direction and speed of motor.
Fig 1. Circuit diagram of my Robot.

Fig 2. Circuit diagram of Infrared sensors and comparators.

Fig 4. Position of sensors,  left hand side is side view and right hand side is top view.
Software
Software for write to AT89C2051 is robot1.hex ,which was written by C-language ,the  source code is robot1.ccompiled by using MC51 in TINY model with my start up code robot.asm .
MPEG files
Sample of competition between 2051 and 68HC11.

  • movie1.mpg (1,303kB)

  • movie2.mpg (373kB)

  • Source : www.kmitl.ac.th
    Contact Owner : plermjai@loxinfo.co.th

    Sunday, 13 May 2012

    7-Segment Digital Clock Circuit

    Skema Rangkaian Jam Digital

    Kumpulan Skema Elektronika- Jam Digital dengan Seven Segmen. The Clock Controller V1.1was designed to be an exemplary of using 'C' language to control timer0interrupt, 7-segment LED and keypad scanning. It provides 1-bit sink currentdriving output, for driving a relay, opto-triac, say. Many projects requiring7-segment display and keypad interfacing may get the idea from the Clockcircuit and software.

    Hardware
    Figure 1 shows a circuitdiagram of the Clock Controller V1.1. P10-P1.7 drives 7-segment commonanode LED with sink current. P3.0-P3.3 also drives a base pin of 4-PNPtransistor, 2n2907 with sink current. As shown in the figure, the 2nd 2-digitLED that connected to P3.2 and P3.3 is rotated 180 degrees to the 1st 2-digitallowing the pt. segment to be used for 1 second blinking. P3.0-P3.3 alsoconnects four momentary switches while the other legs are tied to inputport P3.4. During display and key switch scanning, a logic '0' is shiftedfrom P3.0 to P3.3,  if there was a key pressed, P3.4 then became low.P3.7 is a 1-bit sink current driving, an example in the circuit uses a2n2907 to drive a small electromechanical relay 5V, say.

    Source: http://www.kmitl.ac.th

    High Quality Intercom

    Skema Rangkaian Interkom Kualitas Tinggi
    Kumpulan Skema Elektronika- Interkom Kualitas Tinggi. This circuit consists of two identical intercom units. Each unit contains a power supply, microphone preamplifier, audio amplifier and a Push To Talk (PTT) relay circuit. Only 2 wires are required to connect the units together. Due to the low output impedance of the mic preamp, screened cable is not necessary and ordinary 2 core speaker cable, or bell wire may be used.

    The schematic can be broken into 34 parts, power supply, mic preamp, audio amplifierand PTT circuit. The power supply is designed to be left on all the time, which is why no on / off switch is provided. A standard 12 V RMS secondary transformer of 12VA will power the unit. Fuses are provided at the primary input and also secondary, before the rectifier. The 1 A fuse needs to be a slow blow type as it has to handle the peak rectifier current as the power supply electrolytics charge from zero volts.

    The microphone amplifier is a 2 transistor direct coupled amplifier. BC108B transistors will work equally well in place of the BC109C transistors. The microphone used is a 3 terminal electret condenser microphone insert. These are popular and require a small current to operate. The preamp is shown in my audio circuit section as well, but has a very high gain and low distortion. The last transistor is biased to around half the supply voltage; this provides the maximum overload margin for loud signals or loud voices. The gain may be adjusted with the 10k preset. Sensitivity is very high, and a ticking clock can easily be heard from the distantloudspeaker.

    The amplifier is based on the popular National Semiconductor LM380. A 50 mV input is all that's required to deliver 2W RMS into an 8 ohm loudspeaker. The choice of loudspeaker determines overall sound quality. A small loudspeaker may not produce a lot of bass, I used an old 8 inch radio loudspeaker. The 4.7u capacitor at pin 1 of the LM380 helps filter out any mains hum on the power supply. This can be increased to a 10u capacitor for better power supply rejection ratio.

    The push to talk (PTT) circuit is very simple. A SPDT relay is used to switch between mic preamplifier output or loudspeaker input. The normally closed contact is set so that each intercom unit is "listening". The non latching push button switch must be held to talk. The 100u capacitor across the relay has two functions. It prevents the relays back emf from destroying the semiconductors, and also delays the release of the relay. This delay is deliberate, and prevents any last word from being "chopped" off.

    Setting Up and Testing
    This circuit does not include a "call" button. With this intercom pressing the Push to Talk button sends your voice to the opposite station, and vice versa. Setup is simple, set to volume to a comfortable level, and adjust the mic preset while speaking with "normal volume" from one meter away. You do not need to be in close contact with the microphone, it will pick up a conversation from anywhere in a room. If the units are a long way away, there is a tendency for the cable to pick up hum, or radio interference. There are various defenses against this. One way is to use a twisted pair cable, each successive turn cancels the interference from the turn before. Another method is to use a small capacitor of say 100n between the common terminal of each relay and ground. This shunts high frequency signals to earth. Another method is to use a low value resistor of about 1k. This will shunt interference and hum, but will shunt the speech signal as well. However as the output impedance of each mic preamp is low, and the speech signals are also low,this will have little effect on speech but reduce interference to an acceptable level.

    Source:  www.zen22142.zen.co.uk 

    Doorphone Intercom

    Skema Rangkaian Interkom Pintu Sederhana
    Description:

    Kumpulan Skema Elektronika- Interkom Pintu Sederhana,

    A simple Intercom made with a single transistor and low power audio amplifier LM386. The circui uses 8 ohm speakers, which also double as a microphone.

    Circuit:
    For the first time, this circuit was is a Canadian/English design and designed by Mr Laurier Gendron of Burnaby in British Columbia, Canada, and myself. Please make sure you visit Laurier's web site, Handy Dandy Little Circuits. This page is also available in French by clicking on the flag.


    In this doorphone circuit, an 8 ohm speaker is used both as a microphone and also an output device. The BC109C stage amplifies in common base mode, providing low input impedance to match the speaker and good voltage gain.
    The 270k resistor provides simple DC bias and the load resistor is 27k. The speaker produces a weak varying DC output when used as a microphone typically several 100uV. This varying DC signal must be separated from the fixed DC bias voltages and this is done by the 100u and 0.47u capacitors.
    An LM386 is used in non-inverting mode as a power amplifier to boost voltage gain and drive the 8 ohm speaker. The 10k potentiometer acts as the volume control, and overall gain may be adjusted using the 5k preset. The gain of the LM386 can be as high as 200, this is required because of the small audio signal from the speaker. The double pole double throw switch, reverses the loudspeaker positions, so that one is used to talk and the other to listen. Manually operating the switch (from inside the house) allows two way communication.

    Source:  www.zen22142.zen.co.uk

    Friday, 4 May 2012

    Soft Start For Switching Power Supply

    extremecircuits.net
    Switching power supply whose output voltage is appreciably lower than its input voltage has an interesting property: the current drawn by it is smaller than its output current. However, the input power (UI) is, of course, greater than the output power. There is another aspect that needs to be watched: when the input voltage at switch-on is too low, the regulator will tend to draw the full current. When the supply cannot cope with this, it fails or the fuse blows. It is, therefore, advisable to disable the regulator at switch-on (via the on/off input). until the relevant capacitor has been charged. When the regulator then starts to draw current, the charging current has already dropped to a level which does not overload the voltage source.

    Circuit diagram:
    Soft Start Circuit For Switching Power Supply

    The circuit in the diagram provides an output voltage of 5 V and is supplied by a 24 V source. The regulator need not be disabled until the capacitor is fully charged: when the potential across the capacitor has reached a level of half or more of the input voltage, all is well. This is why the zener diode in the diagram is rated at 15 V. Many regulators produced by National Semiconductor have an integral on/off switch, and this is used in the present circuit. The input is intended for TTL signals, and usually consists of a transistor whose base is accessible externally. This means that a higher switching voltage may be applied via a series resistor: the value of this in the present circuit is 22 kΩ. When the voltage across the capacitor reaches a level of about 17 V, transistor T1 comes on, whereupon the regulator is enabled.
    Source: National Semiconductors

    1.5 - 35 Volt DC Regulated Power Supply

    extremecircuits.net
    Here is the circuit diagram of regulated power supply. It is a small power supply that provides a regulated voltage, adjustable between 1.5 and 35 volts at 1 ampere. This circuit is ready to use, you just need to add a suitable transformer. This circuit is thermal overload protected because the current limiter and thermal overload protection are included in the IC.



    Picture of the circuit:
     1A 1.5 volt to 35 volt dc Regulated Power Supply Circuit Schematic
    1A Regulated Power Supply Circuit Schematic


    Circuit diagram:
     1A 1.5 volt to 35 volt dc Regulated Power Supply Circuit Diagram
    1A Regulated Power Supply Circuit Diagram


    Transformer selection chart:
      Transformer Selection Chart for 1A 1.5 volt to 35 volt dc Regulated Power Supply Circuit Diagram
    Transformer selection Guide-Table For Power Supply


    Parts:

    IC = LM317
    P1 = 4.7K
    R1 = 120R
    C1 = 100nF - 63V
    C2 = 1uF - 35V
    C3 = 10uF - 35V
    C4 = 2200uF - 35V
    D1-D4 = 1N4007



    Features:
    • Just add a suitable transformer (see table)
    • Great to power your projects and save money on batteries
    • Suitable as an adjustable power supply for experiments
    • Control DC motors, low voltage light bulbs, …



    Specifications :
    • Preset any voltage between 1.5 and 35V
    • Very low ripple (80dB rejection)
    • Short-circuit, thermal and overload protection
    • Max input voltage : 28VAC or 40VDC
    • Max dissipation : 15W (with heatsink)
    • Dimensions : 52x52mm (2.1” x 2.1”)



    Technical Specifications
    • Input Voltage = 40Vdc max Transformer
    • Output Voltage = 1.5V to 35Vdc
    • Output Current = 1.5 Amps max.
    • Power Dissipation = 15W max (cooled)



    Note:
    • It has not to be cooled if used for small powers. 28 Volt AC max is allowed for the input voltage.

    Wednesday, 2 May 2012

    Rangkaian Power Amplifier 1000 Watt

    Kumpulan Skema Elektronika. This is a audio power amplifier Blazer circuit provides up to 1000Watt . This interesting routes many good bass and treble alive. Importantly should choose Power supply source, which has been fairly high voltage class 70Vdc GND -70V 10A is the current low level
    Rangkaian Power Amplifier Blazer 1000 WattSkema Rangkaian Power Amplifier Blazer 1000 Watt

    The transistors are 2SC3858 (NPN) and 2SA1494 (PNP), and feature high bandwidth, excellent safe operating area, high linearity and high gain. Driver transistors are 2SC5200 (NPN) and 2SA1943 (PNP). All devices are rated at 230V, with the power transistors having a 150W dissipation and the drivers are 50W.

    This circuit describes an amplifier, power supply and tests procedures that are all inherently dangerous. Nothing described in this article should even be considered unless you are fully experienced, know exactly what you are doing, and are willing to take full 100% responsibility for what you do. There are aspects of the design that may require analysis, fault-finding and/or modification.

    Skema Rangkaian 400W MOSFET Amplifier

    Kumpulan Skema Elektronika. These amplifiers circuit can be used for virtually any application that requires high performance, low use Noise, distortion and excellent sound quality. Examples would be subwoofer amplifier should FOH stage Amplifiers, surround a canal a very powerful sound amplifier, etc. The 400W MOSFET-amplifier has four key stages of amplification. We are looking to start any Phase appropriate detail.
    Rangkaian 400W MOSFET  AmplifierSkema Rangkaian 400W MOSFET Amplifier

    Note:
    • Use + /-70V 10A DC dual supply for powering the circuit.
    • For L1 make 12turns of enameled copper wire on a 1cm him: plastic formers.
    • use 8 x IRFP448 MOSFETs in the final stages
    • Heat sink is Necessary for the MOSFETs. A 8x4x4 inch finned aluminum heat sink will do. There is no such thing as a heat sink That is too large.

    As the name suggests All Q ,C and ZD the Bias and buffer phases. Its main goal is to provide a stable MOSFET Gates and offset voltage and the voltage buffer amplifier stage of the High Resource capacity. What would have without the phase response and the effect Slew rate is indeed very bad. The flip side of the coin is not the extra step Introduction of an additional dominant pole in the amplifier feedback loop.

    Also to what the name suggests this stage converts the voltage developed in the VAS and provides all the amps required to drive at 8 or 4 ohms. 2-ohm loads are possible for several minutes at a time. In fact, I have tested more than 1600 1kW amplifier Watts RMS at 2 ohms. But that would not be recommended as a long-term exposure at all. If it is higher than the figures of the STI-amp. Power to the AV amplifier 800 The components of the power for this amplifier are as follows, and are favored A channel or a power module alone. 1 toroidal transformer with a rating of 1kVA. Primary windings are made to fit